A sniper is a marksman or qualified specialist who operates alone,
in a pair, or with a sniper team to maintain close visual contact with the enemy and shoot enemies from concealed positions or distances exceeding the detection capabilities of enemy personnel.
Snipers typically have highly-selective or specialized training and use crew-served high-precision/special application rifles and optics,
and often have sophisticated communication assets to feed important combat information back to their units or military bases.
Most sniper teams operate independently, with little combat asset support from their parent units; their job is to deliver discriminatory,
highly-accurate rifle fire against enemy targets that cannot be engaged successfully by the regular rifleman because of range, size, location, fleeting nature, or visibility.
Sniping requires the development of basic infantry skills to a high degree of skill.
A sniper’s training incorporates a wide variety of subjects designed to increase value as a force multiplier and to ensure battlefield survival. Sniping requires learning and repetitively practicing these skills until mastered.
A sniper must be highly trained in long range rifle marksmanship and field craft skills to ensure maximum effective engagements with minimum risk.
In addition to marksmanship and long range shooting,
military snipers are trained in a variety of techniques: detection, stalking,
and target range estimation methods, camouflage, field craft, infiltration, special reconnaissance and observation,
surveillance and target acquisition.
Sniper rifles are classified as crew-served, as the term is used in the United States military.
The snipers team (or snipers cell) consists of a combination of one or more shooters with force protection elements and support personnel: such as a spotter or a flanker.
Within the Table of Organization and Equipment for both the United States Army and the U.S. Marine Corps,
the operator of the weapon has an assistant trained to fulfill multiple roles,
in addition to being sniper-qualified in the operation of the weapon.-justplay18
The shooter fires the shot while the spotter assists in observation of targets,
atmospheric conditions and handles ancillary tasks as immediate security of their location,
communication with other parties; including directing artillery fire and close air support.
A flanker’s task is to observe areas not immediately visible to the sniper or spotter and assist with the team’s perimeter and rear security, therefore flankers are usually armed with an assault rifle or battle rifle.
Both spotter and flanker carries additional ammunition and associated equipment.
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