Mercury Chemical Element
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80. It is commonly known as quicksilver and was formerly named hydrargyrum.
A heavy, silvery d-block element, mercury is the only metallic element that is liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure;
the only other element that is liquid under these conditions is bromine, though metals such as caesium, gallium,
and rubidium melt just above room temperature.-Justplay
Mercury occurs in deposits throughout the world mostly as cinnabar (mercuric sulfide).
The red pigment vermilion is obtained by grinding natural cinnabar or synthetic mercuric sulfide.
Mercury is used in thermometers, barometers, manometers, sphygmomanometers, float valves, mercury switches, mercury relays, fluorescent lamps and other devices,
though concerns about the element’s toxicity have led to mercury thermometers and sphygmomanometers being largely phased out in clinical environments in favor of alternatives such as alcohol- or galinstan-filled glass thermometers and thermistor- or infrared-based electronic instruments.
Likewise, mechanical pressure gauges and electronic strain gauge sensors have replaced mercury sphygmomanometers.
Mercury remains in use in scientific research applications and in amalgam for dental restoration in some locales.
It is used in fluorescent lighting.
Electricity passed through mercury vapor in a fluorescent lamp produces short-wave ultraviolet light which then causes the phosphor in the tube to fluoresce, making visible light.
Mercury poisoning can result from exposure to water-soluble forms of mercury
(such as mercuric chloride or methylmercury), by inhalation of mercury vapor, or by ingesting any form of mercury.
Mercury was found in Egyptian tombs that date from 1500 BC.
In China and Tibet, mercury use was thought to prolong life, heal fractures,
and maintain generally good health,
although it is now known that exposure to mercury vapor leads to serious adverse health effects.
The first emperor of China, Qín Shǐ Huáng Dì—allegedly buried in a tomb that contained rivers of flowing mercury on a model of the land he ruled,
representative of the rivers of China—was killed by drinking a mercury and powdered jade mixture formulated by Qin alchemists (causing liver failure, mercury poisoning, and brain death) who intended to give him eternal life.
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